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其實我在做食品業之前, 我對食材的認知只有“知名產地出產”而有價格的差異. 在食品業打滾一些日子後, 才知道其實食材也有不一樣的品種 ,甚至還有季節性,甚至有些品種因為稀少甚至有拍賣會或是只在五星級餐廳才看得到, 例如Ayam Cemani chicken 西馬尼黑雞.
Before entering food industry, my aspect of expensive food ingredients is based on different origins. However, after working in this industry for a while, I realize different breeds or seasonal food ingredients might cost more than expected.
近期有陸續在找關於雞的資料 (發揮寫產業報告的精神) , 根據“Food and Cooking”書第三章中, 發現其實雞最純也是歷史最長久的品種是“紅原雞” (雞冠是紅色的雞, 身體偏橘黑色), 最常見的產地為印度北部和中國南部. 到了19世紀(就是工業革命的時代), 大量的雞肉才開放進口歐洲. 最講求食材的法國甚至還將”Label Rouge (紅標)”套用在雞肉上, 要拿到紅標美食認證有很多標準, 例如要戶外放養, 養超過80天才可以屠宰 (普通肉雞40~ 50天即可屠宰). 熟齡紅標雞肉因為肉質較為緊密, 品嚐起來較為美味.
Recently, I started researching informations regarding chicken. According to “Food and Cooking” Chapter 3, the chicken’s ancestor would be the “red chicken”. The most seen origins would be northern India and South of China. During 19th century, European countries started allowing imported chickens from all over the world. However, France even established a policy, which is called “Label Rouge”, can be used on poultry and other agriculture products. In order to get “Label Rouge” for the chickens (such as Bresse Poultry), you would need to keep the chickens on the yard instead of indoor. Also, you can only butcher the chicken after 80 days instead of 40~ 50 days. Because the aged chicken’s muscles are more dense, it tastes better.
轉回正題, 這隻黑得發亮的雞品種名為Ayam Cemani (西馬尼黑雞), 原產地為印尼, 饕客視這款稀有品種為“雞界的藍寶基尼” (其實應該要稱作”雞界的蝙蝠車“), 從頭到腳, 從內到外, 除了雞蛋是米色跟血是暗紅色外, 其他都是黑色(沒錯, 包括雞骨), 我想大家都猜的出來為何全身都是黑色, 就是基因突變, 此種突變的專有名詞是“纖維血管形成”（fibromelanosis), 在美國,一隻西馬尼黑雞可賣到美金$400元 (約台幣12,000元).
This bright black chicken breed’s name is Ayam Cemani, which is originated from Indonesia. Foodie called this rare breed as “Lamborghini in Poultry world” (maybe the bat mobile might be more suitable!). Both appearance and inner organs, and bones are black. However, their blood are dark red and their eggs are creamy beige color. As you might guess, the bright black color is from their genetic mutation called fibromelanosis. USA Greenfire Farms sells USD $400 per Ayam Cemani chicken.
對饕客來說, 料理的美味才是最重要, 可惜的是網路上並無關於品嚐後的感想. Sadly, I couldnt find the actual wording on internet to describe Ayam Cemani tastes.
1. Ayam Cemani Wiki (English)
2. Fine Dining Lovers: Meet the “Lamborghini of Poultry” Ayam Cemani Chicken
3. USA Greenfire Farms Ayam Cemani Chicken Price